Uthman ibn Affan ( Arabic : عثمان بن عفان ‎, translit.   ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān ), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman , (579–17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun , or "Rightly Guided Caliphs." Born into a prominent Meccan clan, Banu Umayya of the Quraysh tribe , he played a major role in early Islamic history , succeeding Umar ibn al-Khattab who died in office at the age of 59/60 years as caliph at the age of 64/65 years (the second-oldest ruler).

According to Sunni Muslims Uthman was married to Ruqayyah , and then upon her death, married Umm Kulthum , both of them being daughters of Prophet Muhammad , which earned Uthman the honorific title Dhū al-Nurayn ("The Possessor of Two Lights"). [4]

Under the leadership of Uthman, the empire expanded into Fars (present-day Iran ) in 650, and some areas of Khorasan (present-day Afghanistan ) in 651. The empire's conquest of Armenia began by the 640s. [5] His reign also saw widespread protests and unrest that eventually led to armed revolt and his assassination.