Variation is a characteristic of language : there is more than one way of saying the same thing. Speakers may vary pronunciation , word choice , or morphology and ...

Between the speakers of any language there is variation in the way that they use their language . This variation is demonstrated by linguistic differences in terms of ...

Varieties of English VARIATION : Natural phenomenon Language is a form of social behavior and communities tend to split up into groups, each displaying differen…

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The study of language variation guides language development activities. For example, when developing a writing system it is desireable for it to be useful and acceptable to the largest number of speakers of the language. Therefore, it is important to identify the most unifying features of the language.

To measure intelligibility SIL assessment specialists use the recorded text test (RTT). The RTT method involves recording a short autobiographical story. Comprehension questions are dubbed into the recording. The new recording is played for people in another community. The number of correct answers to the comprehension questions gives a measure of comprehension of the speech of the other community.

SIL assessment specialists highly value participatory methods of working with members of the language communities. Qualitative methods of data collection, in a participatory context, include observations, questionnaire, and interviews. Working collaboratively with the community gains quality information and builds capacity and awareness in the local community.

Variation is a characteristic of language : there is more than one way of saying the same thing. Speakers may vary pronunciation , word choice , or morphology and ...

Between the speakers of any language there is variation in the way that they use their language . This variation is demonstrated by linguistic differences in terms of ...

Varieties of English VARIATION : Natural phenomenon Language is a form of social behavior and communities tend to split up into groups, each displaying differen…

Variation is a characteristic of language : there is more than one way of saying the same thing. Speakers may vary pronunciation , word choice , or morphology and ...

Between the speakers of any language there is variation in the way that they use their language . This variation is demonstrated by linguistic differences in terms of ...

Varieties of English VARIATION : Natural phenomenon Language is a form of social behavior and communities tend to split up into groups, each displaying differen…

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Variation is a characteristic of language : there is more than one way of saying the same thing. Speakers may vary pronunciation , word choice , or morphology and ...

Between the speakers of any language there is variation in the way that they use their language . This variation is demonstrated by linguistic differences in terms of ...

Varieties of English VARIATION : Natural phenomenon Language is a form of social behavior and communities tend to split up into groups, each displaying differen…

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

The study of language variation guides language development activities. For example, when developing a writing system it is desireable for it to be useful and acceptable to the largest number of speakers of the language. Therefore, it is important to identify the most unifying features of the language.

To measure intelligibility SIL assessment specialists use the recorded text test (RTT). The RTT method involves recording a short autobiographical story. Comprehension questions are dubbed into the recording. The new recording is played for people in another community. The number of correct answers to the comprehension questions gives a measure of comprehension of the speech of the other community.

SIL assessment specialists highly value participatory methods of working with members of the language communities. Qualitative methods of data collection, in a participatory context, include observations, questionnaire, and interviews. Working collaboratively with the community gains quality information and builds capacity and awareness in the local community.

Other Germanic languages include Dutch, German, Icelandic, Swedish, and more. All of them arose from a single language, called Proto-Germanic by linguists, which was spoken over 2500 years ago. Proto-Germanic was never written down, but its existence and much of its vocabulary and structure can be confidently inferred from the many systematic correspondences in words and grammatical structures shared by its descendants.

The break-up of Proto-Germanic happened when subgroups of the original speech community became separated: 500 to 1000 years of independent changes first produced divergent dialects, and then these became separate languages. The same thing happened to Latin after the Romans spread it over large parts of Europe; it split into dialects that turned into the modern Romance languages, among them French, Spanish, and Italian. Latin and Proto-Germanic were also related. Their ancestor, and the ancestor of many other languages of Europe, India, and points in between, was Proto-Indo-European, the parent of one of the world's most widespread language families.

Grammatical constructions also change. A passage in the Old English Lord's Prayer reads, in literal translation, 'not lead thou us into temptation', in sharp contrast to Modern English 'don't lead us into temptation'. Nowadays, 'not' must follow an auxiliary verb 'do' (often contracted to 'don't'), there is no pronoun subject in the sentence, and if there were one it would be 'you'--'thou' has entirely disappeared from the modern language.


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