Austro-German Alliance , also called Dual Alliance , (1879) pact between Austria-Hungary and the German Empire in which the two powers promised each other support in case of attack by Russia, and neutrality in case of aggression by any other power. Germany’s Otto von Bismarck saw the alliance as a way to prevent the isolation of Germany and to preserve peace, as Russia would not wage war against both empires. The addition of Italy in 1882 made it the Triple Alliance . The agreement remained an important element of both German and Austro-Hungarian foreign policy until 1918.

…the conference, Bismarck negotiated an alliance with Austria-Hungary (1879), which remained in effect through World War I. While Bismarck did not intend to do so, he had tied the fate of the youthful German Empire to the aged multinational empire that faced continuous problems from its many ethnic minorities. The…

…Empire had joined in the Dual Alliance, by which the two sovereigns promised each other support in the case of Russian aggression. The signing of the Dual Alliance was Andrássy’s last act as foreign minister, but the alliance survived as the main element in the international position of the Habsburg…

How did Adolf Hitler rise from an aimless drifter and failed artist to become the most destructive politician of the 20th century? Professor Jeremy Noakes examines a remarkable transformation.

Before embarking on a political career in September 1919 at the age of thirty, Adolf Hitler had been a nonentity. With no formal qualifications, he had become an aimless drifter and failed artist before joining the army on the outbreak of war in August 1914. There he was not considered worthy of promotion because of 'a lack of leadership qualities', although his award of the Iron Cross First Class showed that he did not lack courage.

Yet during the next 26 years he succeeded in gaining and exercising supreme power in Germany and, in the process, arguably had more impact on the history of the world in the 20th century than any other political figure. The explanation for this remarkable transformation lies partly in Hitler himself, in his particular personal qualities and gifts, and partly in the situation in which he found himself, with a nation in deep crisis.

The Battle of Caporetto (also known as the  Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo , the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers ) was a battle on the Austro-Italian front of World War I . The battle was fought between the Entente and the Central Powers and took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia , then part of the Austrian Littoral ). The battle was named after the Italian name of the town (also known as Karfreit in German).

Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian forces opposing them. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers and the infiltration tactics developed in part by Oskar von Hutier . The use of poison gas by the Germans also played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army . [5]

In August 1917 Paul von Hindenburg decided that to keep the Austro-Hungarians in the war, the Germans had to help them defeat the Italian army. Erich Ludendorff was opposed to this but was overruled. [6] In September three experts from the Imperial General Staff , led by the chemist Otto Hahn , went to the Isonzo front to find a site suitable for a gas attack. [7] They proposed attacking the quiet Caporetto sector, where a good road ran west through a mountain valley to the Venetian plain .

Austro-German Alliance , also called Dual Alliance , (1879) pact between Austria-Hungary and the German Empire in which the two powers promised each other support in case of attack by Russia, and neutrality in case of aggression by any other power. Germany’s Otto von Bismarck saw the alliance as a way to prevent the isolation of Germany and to preserve peace, as Russia would not wage war against both empires. The addition of Italy in 1882 made it the Triple Alliance . The agreement remained an important element of both German and Austro-Hungarian foreign policy until 1918.

…the conference, Bismarck negotiated an alliance with Austria-Hungary (1879), which remained in effect through World War I. While Bismarck did not intend to do so, he had tied the fate of the youthful German Empire to the aged multinational empire that faced continuous problems from its many ethnic minorities. The…

…Empire had joined in the Dual Alliance, by which the two sovereigns promised each other support in the case of Russian aggression. The signing of the Dual Alliance was Andrássy’s last act as foreign minister, but the alliance survived as the main element in the international position of the Habsburg…

How did Adolf Hitler rise from an aimless drifter and failed artist to become the most destructive politician of the 20th century? Professor Jeremy Noakes examines a remarkable transformation.

Before embarking on a political career in September 1919 at the age of thirty, Adolf Hitler had been a nonentity. With no formal qualifications, he had become an aimless drifter and failed artist before joining the army on the outbreak of war in August 1914. There he was not considered worthy of promotion because of 'a lack of leadership qualities', although his award of the Iron Cross First Class showed that he did not lack courage.

Yet during the next 26 years he succeeded in gaining and exercising supreme power in Germany and, in the process, arguably had more impact on the history of the world in the 20th century than any other political figure. The explanation for this remarkable transformation lies partly in Hitler himself, in his particular personal qualities and gifts, and partly in the situation in which he found himself, with a nation in deep crisis.

Austro-German Alliance , also called Dual Alliance , (1879) pact between Austria-Hungary and the German Empire in which the two powers promised each other support in case of attack by Russia, and neutrality in case of aggression by any other power. Germany’s Otto von Bismarck saw the alliance as a way to prevent the isolation of Germany and to preserve peace, as Russia would not wage war against both empires. The addition of Italy in 1882 made it the Triple Alliance . The agreement remained an important element of both German and Austro-Hungarian foreign policy until 1918.

…the conference, Bismarck negotiated an alliance with Austria-Hungary (1879), which remained in effect through World War I. While Bismarck did not intend to do so, he had tied the fate of the youthful German Empire to the aged multinational empire that faced continuous problems from its many ethnic minorities. The…

…Empire had joined in the Dual Alliance, by which the two sovereigns promised each other support in the case of Russian aggression. The signing of the Dual Alliance was Andrássy’s last act as foreign minister, but the alliance survived as the main element in the international position of the Habsburg…

How did Adolf Hitler rise from an aimless drifter and failed artist to become the most destructive politician of the 20th century? Professor Jeremy Noakes examines a remarkable transformation.

Before embarking on a political career in September 1919 at the age of thirty, Adolf Hitler had been a nonentity. With no formal qualifications, he had become an aimless drifter and failed artist before joining the army on the outbreak of war in August 1914. There he was not considered worthy of promotion because of 'a lack of leadership qualities', although his award of the Iron Cross First Class showed that he did not lack courage.

Yet during the next 26 years he succeeded in gaining and exercising supreme power in Germany and, in the process, arguably had more impact on the history of the world in the 20th century than any other political figure. The explanation for this remarkable transformation lies partly in Hitler himself, in his particular personal qualities and gifts, and partly in the situation in which he found himself, with a nation in deep crisis.

The Battle of Caporetto (also known as the  Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo , the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers ) was a battle on the Austro-Italian front of World War I . The battle was fought between the Entente and the Central Powers and took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia , then part of the Austrian Littoral ). The battle was named after the Italian name of the town (also known as Karfreit in German).

Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian forces opposing them. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers and the infiltration tactics developed in part by Oskar von Hutier . The use of poison gas by the Germans also played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army . [5]

In August 1917 Paul von Hindenburg decided that to keep the Austro-Hungarians in the war, the Germans had to help them defeat the Italian army. Erich Ludendorff was opposed to this but was overruled. [6] In September three experts from the Imperial General Staff , led by the chemist Otto Hahn , went to the Isonzo front to find a site suitable for a gas attack. [7] They proposed attacking the quiet Caporetto sector, where a good road ran west through a mountain valley to the Venetian plain .

Relations between Austria and Germany are close, due to their shared history and language, with German being the official language and Germans being the largest ethnic group of both countries.

Modern-day Austria and Germany were united until 1866: their predecessors were part of the Holy Roman Empire and the German Confederation until the unification of German states under Prussia in 1871, which excluded Austria. In 1918 after the end of World War I, Austria renamed itself the Republic of German-Austria in an attempt for union with Germany but this was forbidden by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919) . In 1938, the Third Reich , led by Austrian-born Adolf Hitler , annexed Austria in the Anschluss .

After Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995, both countries are member-states of the Schengen Agreement . Whereas Germany is a member nation of NATO , Austria remains a partner to NATO in accordance with its constitution to maintain neutrality.

BEING convinced that they are making a valuable contribution towards the whole European development in the direction of maintaining peace, and in the belief that they are thereby best serving the manifold mutual interests of both German States, the Governments of the Federal State of Austria and of Germany have resolved to return to relations of a normal and friendly character. In this connexion it is declared-

(1).The German Government recognizes the full sovereignty of the Federate State of Austria in the spirit of the pronouncements of the German Fuhrer and Chancellor of May 21, 1935.

(2) Each of the two Governments regards the inner political order (including the question of Austrian National-Socialism) obtaining in the other country as an internal concern of that country, upon which

Austro-German Alliance , also called Dual Alliance , (1879) pact between Austria-Hungary and the German Empire in which the two powers promised each other support in case of attack by Russia, and neutrality in case of aggression by any other power. Germany’s Otto von Bismarck saw the alliance as a way to prevent the isolation of Germany and to preserve peace, as Russia would not wage war against both empires. The addition of Italy in 1882 made it the Triple Alliance . The agreement remained an important element of both German and Austro-Hungarian foreign policy until 1918.

…the conference, Bismarck negotiated an alliance with Austria-Hungary (1879), which remained in effect through World War I. While Bismarck did not intend to do so, he had tied the fate of the youthful German Empire to the aged multinational empire that faced continuous problems from its many ethnic minorities. The…

…Empire had joined in the Dual Alliance, by which the two sovereigns promised each other support in the case of Russian aggression. The signing of the Dual Alliance was Andrássy’s last act as foreign minister, but the alliance survived as the main element in the international position of the Habsburg…

Austro-German Alliance , also called Dual Alliance , (1879) pact between Austria-Hungary and the German Empire in which the two powers promised each other support in case of attack by Russia, and neutrality in case of aggression by any other power. Germany’s Otto von Bismarck saw the alliance as a way to prevent the isolation of Germany and to preserve peace, as Russia would not wage war against both empires. The addition of Italy in 1882 made it the Triple Alliance . The agreement remained an important element of both German and Austro-Hungarian foreign policy until 1918.

…the conference, Bismarck negotiated an alliance with Austria-Hungary (1879), which remained in effect through World War I. While Bismarck did not intend to do so, he had tied the fate of the youthful German Empire to the aged multinational empire that faced continuous problems from its many ethnic minorities. The…

…Empire had joined in the Dual Alliance, by which the two sovereigns promised each other support in the case of Russian aggression. The signing of the Dual Alliance was Andrássy’s last act as foreign minister, but the alliance survived as the main element in the international position of the Habsburg…

How did Adolf Hitler rise from an aimless drifter and failed artist to become the most destructive politician of the 20th century? Professor Jeremy Noakes examines a remarkable transformation.

Before embarking on a political career in September 1919 at the age of thirty, Adolf Hitler had been a nonentity. With no formal qualifications, he had become an aimless drifter and failed artist before joining the army on the outbreak of war in August 1914. There he was not considered worthy of promotion because of 'a lack of leadership qualities', although his award of the Iron Cross First Class showed that he did not lack courage.

Yet during the next 26 years he succeeded in gaining and exercising supreme power in Germany and, in the process, arguably had more impact on the history of the world in the 20th century than any other political figure. The explanation for this remarkable transformation lies partly in Hitler himself, in his particular personal qualities and gifts, and partly in the situation in which he found himself, with a nation in deep crisis.

The Battle of Caporetto (also known as the  Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo , the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers ) was a battle on the Austro-Italian front of World War I . The battle was fought between the Entente and the Central Powers and took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia , then part of the Austrian Littoral ). The battle was named after the Italian name of the town (also known as Karfreit in German).

Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into the Italian front line and rout the Italian forces opposing them. The battle was a demonstration of the effectiveness of the use of stormtroopers and the infiltration tactics developed in part by Oskar von Hutier . The use of poison gas by the Germans also played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army . [5]

In August 1917 Paul von Hindenburg decided that to keep the Austro-Hungarians in the war, the Germans had to help them defeat the Italian army. Erich Ludendorff was opposed to this but was overruled. [6] In September three experts from the Imperial General Staff , led by the chemist Otto Hahn , went to the Isonzo front to find a site suitable for a gas attack. [7] They proposed attacking the quiet Caporetto sector, where a good road ran west through a mountain valley to the Venetian plain .

Relations between Austria and Germany are close, due to their shared history and language, with German being the official language and Germans being the largest ethnic group of both countries.

Modern-day Austria and Germany were united until 1866: their predecessors were part of the Holy Roman Empire and the German Confederation until the unification of German states under Prussia in 1871, which excluded Austria. In 1918 after the end of World War I, Austria renamed itself the Republic of German-Austria in an attempt for union with Germany but this was forbidden by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919) . In 1938, the Third Reich , led by Austrian-born Adolf Hitler , annexed Austria in the Anschluss .

After Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995, both countries are member-states of the Schengen Agreement . Whereas Germany is a member nation of NATO , Austria remains a partner to NATO in accordance with its constitution to maintain neutrality.


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